Citations for Chapter Five: Water and Hydrogen

For more information about citations and sources, please visit this writing's source and citation policy. For a full list of citations used in this writing, please visit Appendix: Cited Facts and Sources.
  1. U.S. Geological Survey on global water data + statistics.
  2. Background reading on electrolysis:
  3. Background reading on electrolysis:
  4. Background reading on MSFD systems:
  5. Background reading on Multi-Stage Flash Distillation.
  6. Background reading on countercurrent exchanges:
  7. Background reading on countercurrent exchanges:
  8. International Atomic Energy Agency. “Introduction of Nuclear Desalination.” Technical Reports Series no 400.
  9. International Desalination Association. “Desalination by the Numbers.” No date provided, continually updated.
  10. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “Is Sea Level Rising?”
  11. Alexandria Engineering Journal Volume 57, Issue 4, December 2018, Pages 2401-2413. “Performance test of a sea water multi-stage flash distillation plant: Case study” A. El-Ghonemy.
  12. Röchling Industrial. “Plastic for lightweight and corrosion resistant Subsea Equipment.”
  13. Washington Post. “Salt of the Sea, as Easy as Evaporation.” T. Haspel. 9 April, 2013.
  14. U.S. Geological Survey. “Mineral Commodity Summaries.” January, 2016.
  15. Data from The Economist on the price of salt worldwide.
  16. Science Times. “Hydrogen is the most comment element: here’s the reason why.” R. Roy. 3 April, 2017.
  17. Background reading on energy density of substances:
  18. Virginia Tech University. “Breakthrough in Hydrogen Fuel Production Could Revolutionize Alternative Energy Market.” 4 April, 2013.
  19. Background reading on hydrogen production through fossil-fuel steam reformation.
  20. OPEC. “Intervention by OPEC Secretary General to the 3rd Gas Summit of the GECF.”
  21. Background reading on Hall-Heroult process to extract substances via electrolysis.
  22. Energy Information Administration. “Hydrogen explained.”
  23. LibreTexts. “Reaction of Main Group Elements with Hydrogen.” 9 November, 2019.
  24. United States Department of Energy. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy.“Hydrogen Storage.”
  25. Graphene is a single-atom-thick sheet of carbon-nanotube laid on a flat surface. It has unrivaled strength and conductivity to both heat and electricity. Background reading may be found here:
  26. Infographic on graphene:
  27. “Batteries” technically require a chemical reaction to generate an electric charge. Graphene’s storage potential is primarily capacitance. However, the phrase is interchangeable in the contemporary lexicon, so “battery” is used in this context with a degree of liberty.
  28. “Engineers Prove Graphene is the Strongest Material.”
  29. W. Xiluan. G. Shi. “Flexible graphene devices related to energy conversion and storage.” 7 January, 2015.
  30. AIChE – The Global Home of Chemical Engineers. “Where Do Chemical Engineers Fit into the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry?” K. Horner. 7 December, 2010.
  31. OPEC. “Intervention by OPEC Secretary General to the 3rd Gas Summit of the GECF.”
  32. Background reading on synthetic hydrocarbons:
  33. Background reading on fuel cell history:
  34. Setra systems, Inc.