Citations for Chapter Four: The Thorium Backbone

For more information about citations and sources, please visit this writing's source and citation policy. For a full list of citations used in this writing, please visit Appendix: Cited Facts and Sources.
  1. Background reading on base load power: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Base_load

    https://energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Baseload_power
     
  2. Energy Information Administration. “What is U.S. electricity generation by energy source?” https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=427&t=3
     
  3. Foundation for Water & Energy Education. “How a Hydroelectric Project Can Affect a River.” https://fwee.org/environment/how-a-hydroelectric-project-can-affect-a-river/
     
    Union of Concerned Scientists. “Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas.” https://www.ucsusa.org/clean-energy/coal-and-other-fossil-fuels/environmental-impacts-of-natural-gas
     
  4. Energy Information Administration. “Most coal-fired electric capacity was built before 1980.” 28 June, 2011. https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=1990
     
  5. Quartz Magazine. “Most coal-fired power plants in the US are nearing retirement age.” T. Woody. 12 March, 2013. https://qz.com/61423/coal-fired-power-plants-near-retirement/
     
  6. Forbes Magazine. “The Thing About Thorium: Why The Better Nuclear Fuel May Not Get a Chance.” M. Katusa. 16 February, 2012. https://www.forbes.com/sites/energysource/2012/02/16/the-thing-about-thorium-why-the-better-nuclear-fuel-may-not-get-a-chance/#79d522b51d80

    M. Baker Schaffer, RAND Corporation. “Abundant thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel
    Important waste disposal and weapon proliferation advantages” 30 May, 2018.
    https://web.mit.edu/mission/www/m2018/pdfs/japan/thorium.pdf
     
    World Nuclear Association. “Thorium.” February, 2017. https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/thorium.aspx
     
  7. See pages 107-115 for detailed breakdown on countries investing in thorium (print copy - version 1.0 - may need subsequent update)
     
  8. Background reading on cold fusion. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_fusion
     
  9. U.S. Department of Energy. "Quadrennial Technology Review." Table 10.4: Range of materials requirements (fuel excluded) for various electricity generation technologies." September, 2015. https://nextgiantleap.org/sites/default/files/source_files/quadrennial-technology-review-2015.pdf

    Center for Environmental Progress. “Are we headed for a solar waste crisis?” J. Desai, M. Nelson. 21 June, 2017. http://environmentalprogress.org/big-news/2017/6/21/are-we-headed-for-a-solar-waste-crisis
     
  10. Background facts about the Topaz Solar Farm. http://www.firstsolar.com/Resources/Projects/Topaz-Solar-Farm
     
  11. Exelon Corp. “Limerick Generating Station.” http://www.exeloncorp.com/locations/power-plants/limerick-generating-station
     
    Background reading on LGS: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limerick_Generating_Station
     
  12. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. “Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1.” https://www.nrc.gov/info-finder/reactors/palo1.html
    Additional background reading: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palo_Verde_Nuclear_Generating_Station
     
  13. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. C. Clack, S. Qvist, J. Apt, et al. “Evaluation of a proposal for reliable low-cost grid power with 100% wind, water, and solar.” PNAS June 27, 2017 114 (26) 6722-6727; first published June 19, 2017 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610381114
     
  14. C. Bahri, A. Majid, W. Al-Areqi. “Advantages of Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor in  Comparison with Light Water Reactor.” Nuclear Science Program, School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.4916861
     
  15. C. Bahri, A. Majid, W. Al-Areqi. “Advantages of Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor in  Comparison with Light Water Reactor.” Nuclear Science Program, School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.4916861
     
  16. MIT Technology Review. “Meltdown-Proof Nuclear Reactors get a Safety Check in Europe.” R. Martin. 4 September, 2015. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/540991/meltdown-proof-nuclear-reactors-get-a-safety-check-in-europe/
     
  17. Machine Design. “Thorium: A Safe Form of Clean Energy?” K. Sorensen. 16 March, 2010. https://www.machinedesign.com/energy/thorium-safe-form-clean-energy

    World Nuclear Association. “Thorium.” February, 2017. https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/thorium.aspx
     
  18. U.S. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information. “Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options.” 1 July, 2011. https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1018987

    M. Baker Schaffer, RAND Corporation. “Abundant thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel
    Important waste disposal and weapon proliferation advantages” 30 May, 2018.
    https://web.mit.edu/mission/www/m2018/pdfs/japan/thorium.pdf
     
  19. C. Bahri, A. Majid, W. Al-Areqi. “Advantages of Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor in  Comparison with Light Water Reactor.” Nuclear Science Program, School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.4916861
     
  20. World Nuclear Association. Information Library: Uranium Enrichment. http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/conversion-enrichment-and-fabrication/uranium-enrichment.aspx. Last updated date: June, 2018.
     
  21. A. Ahmad, E. McClamrock, A. Glaser. "Neutronics calculations for denatured molten salt reactors: Assessing resource requirements and proliferation-risk attributes." Annals of Nuclear Energy. Volume 75. January, 2015. Pages 261-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2014.08.014
    M. Schaffer. "Abundant thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel: Important waste disposal and weapon proliferation advantages." Journal of Energy Policy, Volume 60. September, 2013, pages 4-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.04.062

    The Economist Magazine. “Asgard’s fire. Thorium, an element named after the Norse god of thunder, may soon contribute to the world’s electricity supply.” 12 April, 2014. https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/2014/04/12/asgards-fire
     
  22. UxC SMR Research Center. “SMR Design Profile.” 3 April, 2013. https://www.uxc.com/smr/uxc_SMRDetail.aspx?key=LFTR
     
  23. S. Lam. “Economics of Thorium and Uranium Reactors.” 30 April, 2013. http://pages.hmc.edu/evans/LamThorium.pdf
     
  24. Background information on LFTRs, including historical progress: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium-based_nuclear_power#Background_and_brief_history
     
  25. LibreTexts. “10.2: Fission and Fusion.” A. Soult. 2 November, 2019. https://chem.libretexts.org/Courses/University_of_Kentucky/UK%3A_CHE_103_-_Chemistry_for_Allied_Health_(Soult)/Chapters/Chapter_10%3A_Nuclear_and_Chemical_Reactions/10.2%3A_Fission_and_Fusion
     
  26. Background reading on fusion energy: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusion_power#Deuterium,_tritium
     
  27. Forbes. “The Thing About Thorium: Why The Better Nuclear Fuel May Not Get A Chance.” M. Katusa. 16 February, 2012. https://www.forbes.com/sites/energysource/2012/02/16/the-thing-about-thorium-why-the-better-nuclear-fuel-may-not-get-a-chance/
     
  28. American Physical Society. “Liquid Fuel Nuclear Reactors.” R. Hargraves, R. Moir. January, 2011. https://www.aps.org/units/fps/newsletters/201101/hargraves.cfm

    World Nuclear Association. “Thorium.” February, 2017. https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/current-and-future-generation/thorium.aspx
     
  29. Background reading on Pressurized Water Reactors:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressurized_water_reactor
     
  30. Background reading on Light Water Reactors: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-water_reactor
     
  31. Background reading on Heavy Water Reactors: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pressurized_heavy-water_reactor
     
  32. Background reading on Molten Salt Reactors (generic):
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molten_salt_reactor
     
  33. World Nuclear Association. “The Nuclear Fuel Cycle.” Last updated date: March, 2017. http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/introduction/nuclear-fuel-cycle-overview.aspx
     
  34. Hargreaves, Robert, PhD. “THORIUM: Energy Cheaper than Coal.” July 25, 2012. pp 164
     
  35. Hargreaves, Robert, PhD. “THORIUM: Energy Cheaper than Coal.” July 25, 2012. pp 164
     
  36. National Institute of Health. “Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants.” Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council. 29 October, 2014. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK253931/
     
  37. World Nuclear Association. “How is uranium made into nuclear fuel?” No date or author provided. https://www.world-nuclear.org/nuclear-essentials/how-is-uranium-made-into-nuclear-fuel.aspx
     
  38. Background reading on Chernobyl disaster: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster
     
  39. American institute of physics. “Searching for lost WWII-era uranium cubes from Germany.” 1 May, 2019. https://phys.org/news/2019-05-lost-wwii-era-uranium-cubes-germany.html
     
  40. Discover Magazine. “Why Aren’t we using thorium in nuclear reactors?” A. Hadhazy. 6 May, 2014. https://www.discovermagazine.com/the-sciences/why-arent-we-using-thorium-in-nuclear-reactors
     
    110th Congress. (2008). S. 3680 (110th): Thorium energy independence and security act of 2008. Retrieved from website: http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/110/s3680/text
     
    U.S. Department of Energy. “Closing the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom.” January, 1996. https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/03/f8/Closing_the_Circle_Report.pdf
     
  41. World Nuclear Association. “Plutonium.” https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/fuel-recycling/plutonium.aspx
     
  42. Globalsecurity.org “Weapons of Mass Destruction – Gun Device.” https://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/intro/gun-device.htm
     
  43. Globalsecurity.org.  “Weapons of Mass Destruction – Implosion Device.” https://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/intro/implosion-device.htm
     
  44. Neptunium 237 and Americium: World Inventories and Proliferation Concerns.” D. Albright and K. Kramer. July 10, 2005. http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/np_237_and_americium.pdf#p14 
     
  45. “Neptunium 237 and Americium: World Inventories and Proliferation Concerns.” D. Albright and K. Kramer. July 10, 2005. http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/np_237_and_americium.pdf#p14
     
  46. Plutonium-239 is created via neutron capture of uranium-238, which is the most common form of uranium in the world (99%+), and is an aspect of the uranium fuel supply used in Pressurized Water Reactors. World Nuclear Association. “Plutonium.” https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/fuel-recycling/plutonium.aspx
     
  47. Background reading on how hydrogen (thermonuclear) weapons work: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermonuclear_weapon
     
  48. Background reading on Teller-Ulam thermonuclear weapon design. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermonuclear_weapon
     
  49. University of Norte Dame lecture slides. “The Hydrogen Bomb.” https://www3.nd.edu/~nsl/Lectures/phys20061/pdf/10.pdf
     
  50. Common nuclear weapons yields: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_weapon_yield
     
  51. Minerals Education Coalition. Thorium. No date provided. https://mineralseducationcoalition.org/elements/thorium/
     
  52. S. Kim, S. Hong, R. Park. “Analysis of steam explosion under conditions of partially flooded cavity and submerged reactor vessel.” 5 July, 2018. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2018/3106039/
     
  53. Background reading on LFTR operation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_fluoride_thorium_reactor
     
  54. Molten salts in LFTRs can take varied forms. This source provides background reading on different salt options and their benefits and drawbacks: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molten_salt_reactor#Mixtures 
     
  55. “An Overview of Thorium Utilization in Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles.” J.  Maiorino, F. D’Auria,, R. Akbari-Jeyhouni. Respectively: Federal University of ABC, CECS, Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André-SP-Brazil, University of Pisa, GRNSPG-DESTEC, Largo L Lazzarini, Pisa, Italy, Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Energy Engineering & Physics, Tehran, Iran. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325670177_An_Overview_of_Thorium_Utilization_in_Nuclear_Reactors_and_Fuel_Cycles
     
  56. International Atomic Energy Agency. “Status Report – LFTR, Flibe Energy.” 28 July, 2016. https://aris.iaea.org/PDF/LFTR.pdf
     
    M. Baker Schaffer, RAND Corporation. “Abundant thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel
    Important waste disposal and weapon proliferation advantages” 30 May, 2018.
    https://web.mit.edu/mission/www/m2018/pdfs/japan/thorium.pdf
     
  57. Watt-Logic. “New project re-ignites European interest in thorium.” 10 September, 2017. http://watt-logic.com/2017/09/10/thorium/
     
  58. American Physical Society. “Liquid Fuel Nuclear Reactors.” R. Hargraves, R. Moir. January, 2011. https://www.aps.org/units/fps/newsletters/201101/hargraves.cfm

    WIRED magazine. “Uranium is So Last Century – Enter Thorium, the New Green Nuke.” R. Martin. 21 December, 2009. https://www.wired.com/2009/12/ff_new_nukes/
     
  59. Robertson, R. C. (June 1971). "Conceptual Design Study of a Single-Fluid Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor" (PDF). ORNL-4541. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. https://energyfromthorium.com/pdf/ORNL-4541.pdf#p1
     
  60. Hargreaves, Robert, PhD. “THORIUM: Energy Cheaper than Coal.” July 25, 2012. pp 177-257
     
  61. NASA Glenn Research Center / American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. “High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology.” A. Juhaz, R. Rarick, R. Rangarajan. October, 2009. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20090029904.pdf#p3

    WIRED magazine. “Uranium is So Last Century – Enter Thorium, the New Green Nuke.” R. Martin. 21 December, 2009. https://www.wired.com/2009/12/ff_new_nukes/
     
  62. International Atomic Energy Agency. “Status Report – LFTR, Flibe Energy.” https://aris.iaea.org/PDF/LFTR.pdf
     
  63. American Physical Society. “Liquid Fuel Nuclear Reactors.” R. Hargraves, R. Moir. January, 2011. https://www.aps.org/units/fps/newsletters/201101/hargraves.cfm
     
  64. U.S. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information. “Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options.” 1 July, 2011. https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1018987
     
  65. NASA Glenn Research Center / American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. “High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology.” A. Juhaz, R. Rarick, R. Rangarajan. October, 2009. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20090029904.pdf#p4
     
  66. World Nuclear Association. Information Library: Uranium Enrichment. http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/conversion-enrichment-and-fabrication/uranium-enrichment.aspx. Last updated date: June, 2018.
     
    Stanford University (coursework). “Thorium Energy Viability.” J. Ting. 12 November, 2015. http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2015/ph240/ting1/
     
  67. Rare Earth Investing News. “Thorium: Rare Earth Liability or Asset?” M. Montgomery. 14 March, 2011.  https://investingnews.com/daily/resource-investing/critical-metals-investing/rare-earth-investing/thorium-rare-earth-liability-or-asset/
     
  68. Hargreaves, Robert, PhD. “THORIUM: Energy Cheaper than Coal.” July 25, 2012. pp 177-257
     
  69. Thorium MSR Foundation. “The Flibe Energy LFTR49: the triple ace in nuclear GEN IV design.” T. Wolters. 24 July, 2016. https://articles.thmsr.nl/the-flibe-energy-lftr49-the-triple-ace-in-nuclear-gen-iv-design-ea9bffcd71dd

    M. Schaffer. “Abundant thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel: Important waste disposal and weapon proliferation advantages.” Journal of Energy Policy, Volume 60. September, 2013, pages 4-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.04.062
     
  70. LERNER, L. (2012, JUNE 22). Nuclear fuel recycling could offer plentiful energy. Argonne National Laboratory News. Retrieved from http://www.anl.gov/articles/nuclear-fuel-recycling-could-offer-plentiful-energy
     
  71. U.S. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information. “Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options.” 1 July, 2011. https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1018987
     
  72. American Physical Society. “Liquid Fuel Nuclear Reactors.” R. Hargraves, R. Moir. January, 2011. https://www.aps.org/units/fps/newsletters/201101/hargraves.cfm
     
  73. Caesum-137 has a half-life of 30.17 years. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium-137
     
  74. S.F. Ashley, B.A. Lindley, G.T. Parks, et al, “Fuel Cycle modelling of open cycle thorium fueled nuclear energy systems.” Annals of Nuclear Energy. V. 69, pp.314-330. July, 2014.
     
  75. Background reading on LFTRs and environmental benefits:
    APS Physics: Liquid Fuel Nuclear Reactors. R. Hargraves and R. Moir. http://www.aps.org/units/fps/newsletters/201101/hargraves.cfm
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_fluoride_thorium_reactor#advantages
     
  76. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. “Preparation of high purity neptunium on multi-gram scale.” P. Pantz, W. Martin, G. Parker. ORNL-2642. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/4275225

    R. E. Brooksbank and CD. Hilton, Recovery of Neptunium-237 from Fluorinator Ash in Metal Recovery Plant, ORNL-2515, (15 September, 1958). 
     
  77. “Neptunium 237 and Americium: World Inventories and Proliferation Concerns.” Table 1. D. Albright and K. Kramer. July 10, 2005. http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/np_237_and_americium.pdf#p14 
     
  78. “Neptunium 237 and Americium: World Inventories and Proliferation Concerns.” D. Albright and K. Kramer. July 10, 2005. http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/np_237_and_americium.pdf#p14
     
  79. Progress In Nuclear Energy. Volume 106. pp. 204-214. “The U-232 production in thorium cycle.” A. Wojciechowski. July, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2018.03.011
     
  80. Langford, R. Everett (2004). Introduction to Weapons of Mass Destruction: Radiological, Chemical, and Biological. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 85.
     
  81. Science and Global Security, Volume 9. “U-232 and the proliferation resistance of u-233 in spent fuel.” J. Kang, F. Hippel. P.1. http://fissilematerials.org/library/sgs09kang.pdf
     
  82. Background reading on the REM unit of measuring radiation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roentgen_equivalent_man
     
  83. Science and Global Security, Volume 9. “U-232 and the proliferation resistance of u-233 in spent fuel.” J. Kang, F. Hippel. P.1. http://fissilematerials.org/library/sgs09kang.pdf
     
  84. Los Alamos National Laboratory. “Benchmark Critical Experiments of Uranium-233 Spheres Surrounded by Uranium-235.” R. Brewer, 1995. P. 9. https://fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/lib-www/la-pubs/00285681.pdf#p9
     
  85. Atomic Archive. “Effects of radiation levels on the human body.” No date provided. http://www.atomicarchive.com/Effects/radeffectstable.shtml
     
  86. International Atomic Energy Agency. “Safe Handling of Plutonium.” Safety series no 39, 1974. https://gnssn.iaea.org/Superseded%20Safety%20Standards/Safety_Series_039_1974.pdf
     
  87. D. Makowski. “The impact of radiation on electronic devices with the specific consideration of neutron and gamma radiation monitoring.” Technical University of Lodz. P. 10. https://jra-srf.desy.de/e86/e575/e605/infoboxContent608/care-thesis-06-004.pdf#p10
     
  88. Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control. “Nuclear Weapons Primer.” Figure 4-3, Weapon design and production: firing sets. https://www.wisconsinproject.org/nuclear-weapons/#implosion
     
  89. National Nuclear Laboratory, Government of the United Kingdom. “The Thorium Fuel Cycle. An independent assessment by the UK National Nuclear Laboratory.” August, 2010. https://www.nnl.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/nnl__1314092891_thorium_cycle_position_paper.pdf#p6 
     
  90. “Neptunium 237 and Americium: World Inventories and Proliferation Concerns.” D. Albright and K. Kramer. July 10, 2005. http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/np_237_and_americium.pdf#p14
     
  91. Background reading on first-strike methodology. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-emptive_nuclear_strike
     
  92. Background reading on “Operation Outside the Box,” an Israeli airstrike against a Syrian reactor suspected of nuclear weapons development. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Outside_the_Box
     
  93. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. “Seawater yields first grams of yellowcake.” 13 June, 2018. S. Bauer. https://www.pnnl.gov/news/release.aspx?id=4514
     
  94. Science and Global Security, Volume 9. “U-232 and the proliferation resistance of u-233 in spent fuel.” J. Kang, F. Hippel. P.1. http://fissilematerials.org/library/sgs09kang.pdf#p1
     
  95. Background reading on two lackluster tests with uranium-233 and neptunium-237:
    http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/India/IndiaShakti.html
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Teapot
     
  96. Background reading on two lackluster tests with uranium-233 and neptunium-237:
    http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/India/IndiaShakti.html
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Teapot
     
  97. Background reading on two lackluster tests with uranium-233 and neptunium-237:
    http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/India/IndiaShakti.html
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Teapot
     
  98. Diagram of Boiling Water Reactor. Georgia State University.
    http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/NucEne/reactor.html
     
  99. J. Mena, P. Edmondson, L. Margetts, et al. “Characterisation of the spatial variability of material properties of Gilsocarbon and NBG-18 using random fields.” Journal of Nuclear Materials 511. September, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.09.008

    Hargreaves, Robert, PhD. “THORIUM: Energy Cheaper than Coal.” July 25, 2012. pp 177-257

    Transatomic Power. Technical White Paper. V.1.0.1. 14 March, 2014. P. 9. https://nextgiantleap.org/sites/default/files/TAP_White_Paper.pdf#9
     
    T. Fei, D. Ogata, K. Pham, et al. (16 May 2008). "A modular pebble-bed advanced high temperature reactor.” U.C. Berkeley Report UCBTH-08-001. 16 May, 2008. http://fhr.nuc.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/08-001_PB-AHTR_NE170_Design_Project_Rpt.pdf

    M. Schaffer. “Abundant thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel: Important waste disposal and weapon proliferation advantages." Journal of Energy Policy, Volume 60. September, 2013, pages 4-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.04.062
     
    Wired Magazine. “Uranium is so last century – enter thorium, the new green nuke.” R Martin. 21 December, 2009. https://www.wired.com/2009/12/ff-new-nukes/
     
  100. Hargreaves, Robert, PhD. “THORIUM: Energy Cheaper than Coal.” July 25, 2012. pp 177-257
     
  101. Harvard Business Review. “Profit from the learning curve.” W. Hirschmann. January, 1964. https://hbr.org/1964/01/profit-from-the-learning-curve
     
    Investopedia. “Learning Curve.” https://www.investopedia.com/terms/l/learning-curve.asp
     
  102. Hargreaves, Robert, PhD. “THORIUM: Energy Cheaper than Coal.” July 25, 2012. pp 221
     
  103. Hargreaves, Robert, PhD. “THORIUM: Energy Cheaper than Coal.” July 25, 2012. pp 220
     
  104. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. “Molten Salt Reactor Experience Applicable to LS-VHTR Refueling.” C. Forsberg, ORNL, 18 April, 2006.

    Background reading on experiments to power aircraft with atomic energy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_Nuclear_Propulsion
     
  105. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. “Molten Salt Reactor Experience Applicable to LS-VHTR Refueling.” C. Forsberg, ORNL, 18 April, 2006.

     
  106. Forbes. “The Thing About Thorium: Why The Better Nuclear Fuel May Not Get A Chance.” M. Katusa. 16 February, 2012. https://www.forbes.com/sites/energysource/2012/02/16/the-thing-about-thorium-why-the-better-nuclear-fuel-may-not-get-a-chance/
     
  107. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. “Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors Overview.” https://www.ornl.gov/msr

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory. “Molten Salt Reactor Experience Applicable to LS-VHTR Refueling.” C. Forsberg, ORNL, 18 April, 2006. Also see:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molten-Salt_Reactor_Experiment for background reading and the National Laboratory Reports on MSRs here https://www.ornl.gov/content/national-laboratory-reports-fhrs
     
  108. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. “Update on SINAP TMSR Research.” https://public.ornl.gov/conferences/msr2016/docs/Presentations/MSR2016-day1-15-Hongjie-Xu-Update-on-SINAP-TMSR-Research.pdf#p3
     
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