Citations for Chapter Six: Cogeneration

For more information about citations and sources, please visit this writing's source and citation policy. For a full list of citations used in this writing, please visit Appendix: Cited Facts and Sources.
  1. Background reading on initial directives on Combined Heat and Power - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CHP_Directive
    Background reading on cogeneration:; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cogeneration
     
  2. Information on the number of Energy Utilities operating in the United States. https://www.publicpower.org/system/files/documents/2018-Public-Power-Statistical-Report-Updated.pdf
     
  3. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. “Electric Power Markets.” https://www.ferc.gov/market-assessments/mkt-electric/overview.asp
     
  4. Energy Information Administration. “What is U.S. electricity generation by energy source?” https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=427&t=3
     
  5. General Electric. “GE Global Power Plant Efficiency Analysis.” https://www.ge.com/reports/wp-content/themes/ge-reports/ge-power-plant/dist/pdf/GE%20Global%20Power%20Plant%20Efficiency%20Analysis.pdf
    Hosted on-site: https://nextgiantleap.org/sites/default/files/source_files/ ge_efficiency.pdf

    National Petroleum Council. “Electric Generation Efficiency.” 18 July, 2007. http://www.npc.org/Study_Topic_Papers/4-DTG-ElectricEfficiency.pdf
    Hosted on-site: https://nextgiantleap.org/sites/default/files/source_files/ 4-DTG-ElectricEfficiency.pdf
     
  6. Background reading on cogeneration within contemporary power-generating systems: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cogeneration#Types_of_plants
     
  7. Background reading on the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palo_Verde_Nuclear_Generating_Station
     
  8. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. “REopt Optimizes Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems.” https://reopt.nrel.gov/projects/case-study-nuclear.html
     
  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. “Update on SINAP TMSR Research.” https://public.ornl.gov/conferences/msr2016/docs/Presentations/MSR2016-day1-15-Hongjie-Xu-Update-on-SINAP-TMSR-Research.pdf#p3
     
  10. South China Morning Post. “China hopes cold war nuclear energy tech will power warships, drones.” S. Chen. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/2122977/china-hopes-cold-war-nuclear-energy-tech-will-power-warships

    China Daily. “China among the countries looking to thorium as new nuclear fuel.” K. Wilson. 25 October, 2018. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201810/25/WS5bd11cf3a310eff3032846d1.html
     
    Next Big Future. “China spending US$3.3 billion on molten salt nuclear reactors for faster aircraft carriers and in flying drones.” B. Wang. 6 December, 2017. https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2017/12/china-spending-us3-3-billion-on-molten-salt-nuclear-reactors-for-faster-aircraft-carriers-and-in-flying-drones.html
     
  11. Next Big Future. “China spending US$3.3 billion on molten salt nuclear reactors for faster aircraft carriers and in flying drones.” B. Wang. 6 December, 2017. https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2017/12/china-spending-us3-3-billion-on-molten-salt-nuclear-reactors-for-faster-aircraft-carriers-and-in-flying-drones.html
     
  12. Next Big Future. “China spending US$3.3 billion on molten salt nuclear reactors for faster aircraft carriers and in flying drones.” B. Wang. 6 December, 2017. https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2017/12/china-spending-us3-3-billion-on-molten-salt-nuclear-reactors-for-faster-aircraft-carriers-and-in-flying-drones.html
     
  13. Phys.org. “Thorium reactors may dispose of enormous amounts of weapons-grade plutonium.” Tomsk Polytechnic University. 22 January, 2018. https://phys.org/news/2018-01-thorium-reactors-dispose-enormous-amounts.html
     
  14. Masters, Gilbert (2004). Renewable and efficient electric power systems. New York: Wiley-IEEE Press. https://www.amazon.com/Renewable-Efficient-Electric-Power-Systems/dp/1118140621
     
  15. Background reading on the CHP Directive: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CHP_Directive
     
  16. Government of the United Kingdom. “Combined Heat and Power Quality Assurance Programme.” Last updated 17 October, 2019. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/combined-heat-power-quality-assurance-programme
     
  17. Government of the United Kingdom. “Combined Heat and Power Incentives.” Last updated 1 April, 2019. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/combined-heat-and-power-incentives 
     
  18. “Advantages of liquid fluoride thorium reactor in comparison with light water reactor.” 29 April, 2015. AIP Conference Proceedings 1659, 040001 (2015); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4916861
     
  19. NASA. “Scientific Consensus: Earth’s Climate is Warming.” https://climate.nasa.gov/scientific-consensus/
     
  20. NASA. “The Causes of Climate Change.” Last update 2 October, 2019.  https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/
     
  21. NASA. Global Climate Change. Vital Signs of the Planet. “Ice Sheets.” https://climate.nasa.gov/vital-signs/ice-sheets/
     
  22. NASA. “The Effects of Climate Change.” https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/
     
  23. The Guardian. “Americans ‘under siege’ from climate disinformation – former NASA chief scientist.” H. Devlin. 8 June, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/jun/08/americans-under-siege-from-climate-disinformation-former-nasa-chief-scientist
     
  24. CDP. “CDP Carbon Majors Report 2017.” P. Griffin. July, 2017. https://www.cdp.net/en/articles/media/new-report-shows-just-100-companies-are-source-of-over-70-of-emissions
     
  25. Mining Congress Journal. “Air pollution and the coal industry.” J. Allen Overton, Jr. 1966. P. 56. https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/6554117-Mining-Congress-Journal-August-1965-Air.html#document/p6/a536518
     
  26. NASA. “Graphic: Carbon dioxide hits new high.” https://climate.nasa.gov/climate_resources/7/graphic-carbon-dioxide-hits-new-high/
     
  27. Forbes Magazine. “Three Reasons Oil Will Continue To Run The World.” J. Clemente. 19 April, 2015. https://www.forbes.com/sites/judeclemente/2015/04/19/three-reasons-oil-will-continue-to-run-the-world/#530c4b7143f9
     
  28. Nature science journal. “Sucking carbon dioxide from air is cheaper than scientists thought.” J. Tollefson. 7 June, 2018. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05357-w
     
  29. Nature science journal. “Commercial boost for firms that suck carbon from air.” D. Cressey. 14 October, 2015. https://www.nature.com/news/commercial-boost-for-firms-that-suck-carbon-from-air-1.18551
     
  30. D. Keith, G. Holmes, D. St. Angelo, K. Heidel. “A Process for Capturing CO2 from the Atmosphere.” 7 June, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2018.05.006
    https://www.cell.com/joule/fulltext/S2542-4351(18)30225-3
     
  31. Climate Engineering. “Our technology.” https://carbonengineering.com/our-technology/
     
  32. Climeworks corporation. “Our Products – Climeworks Plant.” https://www.climeworks.com/our-products/
     
  33. California Institute of Technology. “Carbon Conversion.” 3 August, 2017. https://www.caltech.edu/about/news/carbon-conversion-79223
     
  34. DesignNews. “CO2 Converted to Solid Carbon.” K. Clemens. 1 March, 2019. https://www.designnews.com/batteryenergy-storage/co2-converted-solid-carbon/206299923860346
     
  35. MIT Technology Review. “Startups looking to suck CO2 from the air are suddenly luring big bucks.” J. Temple. 2 May, 2019. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/613447/startups-looking-to-suck-c02-from-the-air-are-suddenly-luring-big-bucks/
     
  36. Climate Engineering. “Uses.” https://carbonengineering.com/uses/
     
  37. Phys.org. “Pressure mounts on aviation industry over climate change.” S. Wolf, M. Abbugao. 9 June, 2019. https://phys.org/news/2019-06-pressure-mounts-aviation-industry-climate.html
     
  38. Nature science journal. “Sucking carbon dioxide from air is cheaper than scientists thought.” J. Tollefson. 7 June, 2018. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05357-w
     
  39. See Appendix Section A4 for a pricing breakdown of Universal Energy.